New evidence on the relationships between Hypnophila Bourguignat, 1859 and Gomphroa Westerlund, 1902 (Gastropoda: Eupulmonata: Azecidae)
Giuseppe Manganelli 1  
,   Joanna Pieńkowska 2  
,   Ewa Kosicka 2  
,   Debora Barbato 1  
,   Andrea Benocci 3  
,   Andrzej Lesicki 2  
,   Folco Giusti 1  
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Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, della Terra e dell’Ambiente, Università di Siena, Italy
Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland
Museo di Storia Naturale dell’Accademia dei Fisiocritici, Siena, Italy
Giuseppe Manganelli   

Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, della Terra e dell’Ambiente, Università di Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena, Italy
Submission date: 2020-07-03
Final revision date: 2020-09-23
Acceptance date: 2020-09-25
Online publication date: 2020-10-12
Folia Malacol. 2020;28(4):286–294
Analysis of nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial COI and nuclear 5.8S+ITS2+28S gene fragments was performed on newly obtained specimens of Hypnophila pupaeformis (Cantraine). The results partially agree with previous morphological (shell and genitalia) analysis. They support separateness of H. pupaeformis from all species assigned to Gomphroa, Cryptazeca, Hypnocarnica and Azeca. They also show close relationships of H. pupaeformis with the Gomphroa group. Indeed Hypnophila and Gomphroa form a clade consisting of four subclades: Hypnophila and three lineages named provisionally Gomphroa A, Gomphroa B and Gomphroa C. However, more research is needed to determine their relationships and to establish whether Hypnophila and Gomphroa are two genera or two (or even four) subgenera of one genus.
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