The species question in freshwater malacology: from Linnaeus to the present day
More details
Hide details
Saint-Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya Naberezhnaya, Russian Federation
Omsk State Pedagogical University, Russian Federation
Submission date: 2017-11-28
Final revision date: 2018-01-21
Acceptance date: 2018-01-28
Publication date: 2018-03-06
Corresponding author
Maxim V. Vinarski   

Saint-Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya Naberezhnaya, 7/9, 199034 Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation
Omsk State Pedagogical University, 14 Tukhachevskogo Emb., 644099 Omsk, Russian Federation
Folia Malacol. 2018;26(1):39-52
The history of the species problem as applied to freshwater molluscs, from the beginning of scientific taxonomy to the present day, is outlined. Three main approaches to delineation of species boundaries (intuitive, conceptual, and operational) are discussed, with remarks on their practical usage in freshwater malacology. The central topic of the article is how malacologists changed their views on the essence of species category and the impact of these changes on the taxonomic practice. The opinions of some prominent and prolific workers in the field (Bourguignat, Kobelt, Hubendick, Starobogatov) are analysed as well as the debates around the theoretical foundations and practical results of the ‘Nouvelle École’ of the 19th century and the ‘comparatory’ systematics of the 20th century. It is shown that the operational approach to species delineation is the most popular in current systematic malacology, with strong inclination of practitioners to use reductionist methods.
Aksenova O. V., Vinarski M. V., Bolotov I. N., Bespalaya Yu. V., Kondakov A. V., Paltser I. S. 2016. An overview of Radix species of the Kamchatka Peninsula (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae). Bull. Russ. Far East. Malacol. Soc. 20: 5–27.
Aksenova O., Vinarski M., Bolotov I., Kondakov A., Bespalaya Yu., Tomilova A., Paltser I., Gofarov M. 2017. Two Radix spp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) endemic to thermal springs around Lake Baikal represent ecotypes of the widespread Radix auricularia. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 55: 298–309.
Araujo R., Buckley D., Nagel K.-O., García-Jiménez R., Machordom A. 2017. Species boundaries, geographic distribution and evolutionary history of the Western Palaearctic freshwater mussels Unio (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 182: 275–299.
Atran S., Medin D. L. 2008. The native mind and the cultural construction of nature. MIT Press, Cambridge.
Bank R., Falkner G., Gittenberger E., Ripken T. E. J., Proschwitz T. von 2006. Check-lists and CLECOM: A response to Davis (2004). Malacologia 48: 321–327.
Bargues M. D., Mas-Coma S. 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of lymnaeid snails based on 18S rDNA sequences. Mol. Biol. Evol. 14: 569–577.
Baršiene J., Ribi G., Baršyte D. 2000a. Comparative karyological analisys of five species of Viviparus (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). J. Mollus. Stud. 66: 259–271.
Baršiene J., Tapia G., Pujante A. M., Martinez-Orti A. 2000b. A comparative study of chromosomes in four species of Theodoxus (Gastropoda: Neritidae). J. Mollus. Stud. 66: 535–541.
Berlin B. 1973. Folk systematics in relation to biological classification and nomenclature. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 4: 259–271.
Bespalaya Yu. V., Bolotov I. N., Aksenova O. V., Gofarov M. Yu., Kondakov A. V., Vikhrev I. V., Vinarski M. V. 2018. DNA barcoding reveals joint invasion of two cryptic Sinanodonta mussel species (Bivalvia: Unionidae) into the largest Siberian river. Limnologica (in press).
Boeters H. D. 1979. Species concept of prosobranch freshwater molluscs in Western Europe, 1. Malacologia 18: 57–60.
Boeters H. D. 1982. Species concept of prosobranch freshwater molluscs in Western Europe, 2. Malacologia 22: 499–504.
Bogatov V. V. 2009. Do European pearl oysters of the genus Margaritifera (Mollusca, Bivalvia) belong to one species? Biol. Bull. 36: 418–420.
Bogatov V. V. 2013. A lenghty discussion concerning the composition of the genus Margaritifera Schum., 1915 (Mollusca, Bivalvia). Biol. Bull. 40: 488–491.
Bogatov V. V. 2014. Does the comparatorial method have a future in diagnostics of large bivalves (Bivalvia: Unionida)? Izvestiya RAN. Ser. biol. 3: 309–320.
Bolotov I., Bespalaya Yu., Aksenova O., Aksenov A., Bolotov N., Gofarov M., Kondakov A., Paltser I., Vikhrev I. 2014. A taxonomic revision of two local endemic Radix spp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) from Khodutka geothermal area, Kamchatka, Russian Far East. Zootaxa 3869: 585–593.
Bolotov I. N., Bespalaya Yu. V., Vikhrev I. V., Aksenova O. V., Aspholm P. E., Gofarov M. Y., Klishko O. K., Kolosova Y. V., Kondakov A. V., Lyubas A. A., Paltser I. S., Konopleva I. S., Tumpeesuwan S., Bolotov N. I., Voroshilova I. S. 2015. Taxonomy and distribution of freshwater pearl mussels (Unionoida: Margaritiferidae) of the Russian Far East. PLoS ONE 10: e0122408.
Bolotov I. N., Makhrov A. A., Bespalaya Yu. V., Vikhrev I. V., Aksenova O. V., Aspholm P. E., Gofarov M. Yu., Ostrovskii A. N., Popov I. Yu., Paltser I. S., Rudzite M., Rudzitis M., Voroshilova I. S., Sokolova S. E. 2013. Results of testing the comparatory method: The curvature of the shell valve frontal section is inappropriate as a systematic character for the freshwater pearl mussel genus Margaritifera. Biol. Bull. 40: 221–231.
Borkin L. J. 2009. Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) as zoologist. Trudy Zool. Inst. RAN Suppl. 1: 9–78.
Bowler P. J. 2009. Evolution: the history of an idea. The California University Press, Berkeley.
Brown D. S. 1994. Freshwater snails of Africa and their medical importance. Taylor & Francis, London.
Brown D. S., Wright C. A. 1972. On a polyploid complex of freshwater snails (Planorbidae: Bulinus) in Ethiopia. J. Zool. 167: 97–132.
Chaster G. W. 1907. Species and variation. J. Conchol. 12: 20–32.
Clessin S. 1876. Was ist Art, was Varietät. Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges. 3: 155–161.
Coutagne G. 1895. Recherches sur le polymorphisme des mollusques de France. Alexandre Rey, Lyon.
Dance S. P. 1970. “Le fanatisme du nobis”: a study of J.-R. Bourguignat and the “Nouvelle École”. J. Conchol. 27: 65–86.
Davis G. M. 1978. Experimental methods in molluscan systematics. In: Fretter V., Peake J. (eds.). Pulmonates. Vol. 2A. Academic Press, London, pp. 99–169.
Davis G. M. 1994. Molecular genetics and taxonomic discrimination. Nautilus Suppl. 2: 3–23.
Davis G. M. 2004. Species check-lists: death or revival of the Nouvelle École? Malacologia 46: 227–231.
Dillon R. T., Wethington A. R., Lydeard C. 2011. The evolution of reproductive isolation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the freshwater snail Physa. BMC Evol. Biol. 11: 144.
Dillon R. T., Wethington A. R., Rhett J. M., Smith T. P. 2002. Populations of the European freshwater pulmonate Physa acuta are not reproductively isolated from American Physa heterostropha or Physa integra. Invert. Biol. 121: 226–234.
Dobzhansky Th. G., Kossakovsky L. V. 1925. Variation of Limnaea stagnalis of waterbodies of the Kiev neighbourhood. Trydy Pervogo Vserossiyskogo Gidrologicheskogo S’ezda, Leningrad: 481–483.
Draparnaud J. P. R. 1801. Tableau des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de la France. Renaud et Bossange, Masson et Besson, Montpellier-Paris.
Draparnaud J. P. R. 1805. Histoire naturelle des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de la France. D. Colas, Paris.
Dubois A. 1988. The genus in zoology: A contribution to the theory of evolutionary systematics. Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. series A. 140: 1–124.
Dubois A. 2008. A partial but radical solution to the problem of nomenclatural taxonomic inflation and synonymy load. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 93: 857–863.
Dubois A. 2011. Species and “strange species” in zoology: Do we need a “unified concept of species”? C. R. Palevol. 10: 77–94.
Ereshefsky M. (ed.) 1992. The units of evolution: essays on the nature of species. A Bradford Book, The MIT Press, Cambridge (MA).
Falkner G., Bank R. A., Proschwitz T. von 2001. Check-list of the non-marine molluscan species-group taxa of the states of Northern, Atlantic and Central Europe (CLECOM I). Heldia 4: 1–76.
Fraser C., Alm E. J., Polz M. F., Spratt B. G., Hanage W. P. 2009. The bacterial species challenge: Making sense of genetic and ecological diversity. Science 323: 741–746.
Garbar A. V., Korniushin A. V. 2002. Karyotypes of two European species of the genus Lymnaea with disputable taxonomic status (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae). Malakol. Abh. 20: 235–246.
Garbar A. V., Korniushin A. V. 2003. Karyotypes of European species of Radix (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) and their relevance to species distinction within the genus. Malacologia 45: 141–148.
Goulding T. C., Dayrat B. 2016. Integrative taxonomy: Ten years of practice and looking into the future. Arch. Zool. Mus. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. 54: 111–139.
Giusti F., Manganelli G. 1992. The problem of the species in malacology after clear evidence of the limits of morphological systematics. In: Gittenberger E., Gould J. (eds). Proc. 9th Int. Malac. Congr. Unitas Malacologica, Leiden: 153–172.
Graf D. L. 2007. Palearctic freshwater mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida) diversity and the Comparatory Method as a species concept. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 156: 71–88.
Graf D. L. 2010. Funeral for the Nouvelle École-iana generic names introduced for freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 159: 1–23.
Grego J., Glöer P., Erőss Z. P., Fehér Z. 2017. Six new subterranean freshwater gastropod species from northern Albania and some new records from Albania and Kosovo (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Moitessieriidae and Hydrobiidae). Subterr. Biol. 23: 85–107.
Haase M., Wilke T., Mildner P. 2007. Identifying species of Bythinella (Caenogastropoda: Rissooidea): a plea for an integrative approach. Zootaxa 1563: 1–16.
Hailman J. P. 1995. Toward operationality of a species concept. In: Lambert D. M., Spencer H. G. (eds). Speciation and the recognition concept: theory and application. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore-London, pp. 103–132.
Hausdorf B. 2011. Progress toward a general species concept. Evolution 65: 923–931.
Hey J. 2006. On the failure of modern species concepts. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21: 447–450.
Hey J., Waples R. S., Arnold M. L., Butlin R. K., Harrison R. G. 2003. Understanding and confronting species uncertainty in biology and conservation. Trends Ecol Evol. 18: 597−603.
Hubendick B. 1951. Recent Lymnaeidae. Their variation, morphology, taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar. Fjärde Serien 3: 1–223.
Hubendick B. 1954. Viewpoints on species discrimination with special attention to medically important snails. Proc. Malac. Soc. London 31: 6–11.
Isaac N. J. B., Mallet J., Mace G. M. 2004. Taxonomic inflation: its influence on macroecology and conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19: 464–469.
Jeffreys J. G. 1862. British conchology or an account of the Mollusca which now inhabit the British Isles and the surrounding seas. Vol. 1. Land and freshwater shells. J. Van Voorts, London.
Kafanov A. I. 1975. On the interpretation of logarithmic spiral in connection with the analysis of variability and growth in bivalve molluscs. Zool. Zh. 54: 1457–1467.
Kafanov A. I. 1998. Recent and fossil Clinocardiinae (Bivalvia, Cardiidae) of the World. I. General part. Bull. Mizunami Fossil Mus. 25: 1–28.
Katoh M., Ribi G. 1996. Genetic evidence for natural hybridization and apparent introgression between freshwater snail species (Viviparus ater and V. contectus). J. Evol. Biol. 9: 67–82.
Kitcher P. 1984. Species. Philos. Sci. 51: 308–333.
Klishko O. K. 2014. Pearl mussels of the genus Dahurinaia (Bivalvia, Margaritiferidae): Differently sized groups of Margaritifera dahurica Middendorff, 1850. Biol. Bull. 41: 434–443.
Klishko O. K., Abakumova V. Y., Lopes-Lima M., Froufe E., Bogan A.E. 2016. Systematics and distribution of Cristaria plicata (Bivalvia, Unionidae) from the Russian Far East. ZooKeys 580: 13–27.
Klishko O. K., Lopes-Lima M., Froufe E., Bogan A. 2014. Are Cristaria herculea (Middendorff, 1847) and Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815) (Bivalvia, Unionidae) separate species? ZooKeys 438: 1–15.
Klishko O., Lopes-Lima M., Froufe E., Bogan A., Vasiliev L., Yanovich L. 2017. Taxonomic reassessment of the freshwater mussel genus Unio (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Russia and Ukraine based on morphological and molecular data. Zootaxa 4286: 93–112.
Kobelt W. 1881a. Catalog der im europäischen Faunengebiet lebenden Binnenconchylien. 2. Auflage. Th. Fischer, Kassel.
Kobelt W. 1881b. Exkursionen in Süditalien. Die Sicilianischen Iberus. Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges. 8: 50–67.
Kobelt W. 1886. Iconographie der Land- & Süsswasser-Mollusken mit vorzüglicher Berücksichtigung der europäischen noch nicht abgebildeten Arten. Neue Folge. 2: 1–56.
Konopleva E. S., Bolotov I. N., Vikhrev I. V., Gofarov M. Yu., Kondakov A. V. 2017. An integrative approach underscores the taxonomic status of Lamellidens exolescens, a freshwater mussel from the Oriental tropics (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Syst. Biodiv. 15: 204–217.
Konstantinidis K. T., Ramette A., Tiedje J. M. 2006. The bacterial species definition in the genomic era. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. B 361: 1929–1940.
Korniushin A. V. 1998. Review of the studies on freshwater mollusc systematics carried out by the Russian taxonomic school. Malacol. Rev. Suppl. 7: 65–82.
Kruglov N. D., Starobogatov Ya. I. 1985. Methods of experimental hybridization and some results of its application in the taxonomy of Lymnaeidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Malac. Rev. 18: 21–35.
Lazareva A. I. 1967. On the systematics of freshwater snails of Kazakhstan from the group Lymnaea palustris Müller (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Zool. Zh. 46: 1340–1349.
Locard A. 1884. De la valeur des caractères spécifiques en malacologie. Bull. Soc. Malacol. France 1: 17–72.
Locard A. 1893. Coquilles des eaux douces et saumâtres de France. Description des familles, genres et espèces. Imp. Alexandre Rey, Lyon.
Logvinenko B. M., Starobogatov Ya. I. 1968. Phylum Molluscs. Mollusca. In: Birstein Ya. A. et al. (eds). Atlas of invertebrates of the Caspian Sea. Pishchevaya Promyshlennost’ Moscow, pp. 308–385.
Logvinenko B. M., Starobogatov Ya. I. 1971. Curvature of the frontal section of the valve as taxonomic character in bivalve molluscs. Nauch. Dokl.Vysshey Shkoly Biol. nauk. 5: 7–10.
López A., Atran S., Coley J. D., Medin D. L., Smith E. E. 1997. The tree of life: universal and cultural features of folkbiological taxonomies and inductions. Cognitive Psychol. 32: 251–295.
Mayr E. 1942. Systematics and the origin of species, from the viewpoint of a zoologist. Columbia University Press, New York.
Mayr E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Mayr E. 1982. The growth of biological thought: diversity, evolution, and inheritance. The Belknap Press, Cambridge (MA).
Mayr E. 1996. What is a species, and what is not? Philos. Sci. 63: 262–277.
Meier-Brook C. 1993. Artaufassungen in Bereich der limnischen Mollusken und ihr Wahd im 20. Jahrhundert. Arch. Molluskenkd. 122: 133–147.
Mehlhop P., Cifelli R. L. 1997. A comparison of morphometric techniques to distinguish sympatric mussel species (family Unionidae) with similar shell morphology. In: Yates T. L., Gannon W. L., Wilson D. E. (eds). Life among the Muses: Papers in honor of James S. Findley. The University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 249–258.
Minichev Y.S. 1974. Chromosome numbers and systematics of gastropods. Zool. Zh. 53: 1255–1257.
Mishler B. 1999. Getting rid of species. In: Wilson R. A. (ed.) Species: new interdisciplinary essays. The MIT Press, Cambridge (MA), pp. 307–315.
Nesis K. N. 1992. Yaroslav Igorevich Starobogatov. Ruthenica 2: 160–162.
Padial J. M., Riva I. de la 2006. Taxonomic inflation and the stability of species lists: the perils of ostrich’s behavior. Syst. Biol. 55: 859–867.
Páll-Gergely B. 2017. Should we describe genera without molecular phylogenies? Zootaxa 4232: 593–596.
Páll-Gergely B., Fehér Z., Otani J. U., Asami T. 2017. An integrative taxonomic approach to infer the systematic position of Chalepotaxis Ancey, 1887 (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Helicarionidae). Molluscan Res. 37: 113–119.
Patterson S. M., Burch J. B. 1978. Chromosomes of pulmonate molluscs. In: Fretter V., Peake J. (eds). Pulmonates. Vol. 2A. Academic Press, London, pp. 171–217.
Pavlinov I. Ya., Lyubarsky G. Ya. 2011. Biological systematics: Evolution of ideas. Arch. Zool. Mus. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. 51: 3–676.
Pershko I. 2011. Karyological peculiarities of species of the genera Fagotia and Microcolpia (Gastropoda, Pectinibranchia, Melanopsidae) in the fauna of Ukraine. Visnik L’vivskogo Universitetu Ser. biol. 56: 91–98.
Queiroz K. de 2005. A unified concept of species and its consequences for the future of taxonomy. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 56: 196–215.
Radoman P. 1983. Hydrobioidea a superfamily of Prosobranchia (Gastropoda). I. Systematics. Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Monograph 547, Department of Sciences 57: 1–256.
Raup D. M. 1966. Geometric analysis of shell coiling: general problems. J. Paleontol. 40: 1178–1190.
Regan C. T. 1926. Organic evolution. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 1925: 75–86.
Reischütz P. L. 1994. Ist Starobogatovismus die Stiegerung von Bourguignatismus? Beiträge zur Molluskenfauna Niederösterreich, XI. Nachrbl. Ersten Voralb. Malakol. Ges. 2: 51–52.
Rumiantsev B. F. 1928. The variation of Limnaea stagnalis L. Trudy Leningrad. Obshch. Estestvoispyt. 58: 45–63.
Saenko E. M., Soroka M., Kholin S. K. 2017. Comparison of the species Sinanodonta amurensis Moskvicheva, 1973 and Sinanodonta primorjensis Bogatov et Zatrawkin, 1988 (Bivalvia: Unionidae: Anodontinae) in view of variability of the mitochondrial DNA coxl gene and conchological features. Izvestiya RAN. Ser. biol. 3: 250–261.
Seifert B. 2014. A pragmatic species concept applicable to all eukaryotic organisms independent from their mode of reproduction or evolutionary history. Soil Org. 86: 85–93.
Sergeeva I. S., Bolotov I. N., Bespalaya Yu. V., Makhrov A. A., Bukhanova A. L., Artamonova V. S. 2008. Freshwater pearl mussels of the genus Margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia) described as M. elongata (Lamarck, 1819) and M. borealis (Westerlund, 1871) should be classified with M. margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758). Biol. Bull. 35: 102–106.
Shikov E. V., Zatravkin M. N. 1991. The comparative method of taxonomic studies of Bivalvia used by Soviet malacologists. Malakol. Abh. 15: 149–159.
Shileyko A. A. 1984. Land snails of the order Pupillina of the USSR fauna (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Geophila). Fauna SSSR. Mollyuski. III(3): 1–399.
Shvansky V. P. 1928. On the issue of variation in Lymnaea stagnalis L. Trudy Smol. Obshch. Estestvoispyt. Vrach. 2: 51–76.
Simpson C.T. 1889. What is a species? Nautilus 3: 78–80.
Simpson C. T. 1900. Synopsis of the naiades, or pearly fresh-water mussels. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: vii+501–1044.
Sites J. W., Crandall K. A. 1997. Testing species boundaries in biodiversity studies. Conserv. Biol. 11: 1289–1297.
Sites J. W., Marshall J. C. 2004. Operational criteria for delimiting species. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 35: 199–227.
Solem A. 1978. Classification of the land Mollusca. In: Fretter V., Peake J. (eds). Pulmonates. Vol. 2A. Academic Press, London, pp. 49–97.
Sowerby G. B. 1839. A conchological manual. G.B. Sowerby, London.
Stamos D. N. 2003. The species problem: biological species, ontology, and the metaphysics of biology. Lexington Books, Lanham.
Starobogatov Ya. I. 1968. Practical demands of systematics and problem of species criteria. Zool. Zh. 47: 875–886.
Starobogatov Ya. I. 1977. On the relations between biological and typological species concepts. Zh. Obshch. Biol. 38: 157–166.
Starobogatov Ya. I. 1996a. Species in theory and in the nature. In: Pavlinov I. Ya. (ed). Current taxonomy: methodological aspects. Moscow State University Press, Moscow, pp. 165–181.
Starobogatov Ya. I. 1996b. Eurasiatic species of the genus Cochlicopa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Cochlicopidae). Ruthenica 5: 105–129.
Starobogatov Ya. I., Prozorova L. A., Bogatov V. V., Saenko E. M. 2004. Mollusks. In: Tsalolikhin S.Ya. (ed.). Key to freshwater invertebrates of Russia and adjacent lands. Vol. 6. Molluscs, polychaetes, nemerteans. Nauka, Saint-Petersburg, pp. 9–491.
Terentiev P. V. 1928. Variation of shells of Limnaea (Limnus) stagnalis L. from the Cherdyn’ Town neighbourhood. Russ. Gidrobiol. Zh. 7: 81–86.
Throckmorton L. H. 1968. Biochemistry and taxonomy. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 13: 99–114.
Timm V. 1976. On the Pisidiidae of Lake Peipsi-Pihkva. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised. Bioloogia 25: 37–52.
Tobias J. A., Seddon N., Spottiswoode C. N., Pilgrim J. D., Fishpool L. D. C., Collar N. J. 2010. Quantitative criteria for species delimitation. Ibis 152: 724–726.
Tryon G. W. 1882. Structural and systematic conchology. An introduction to the study of Mollusca. Vol. 1. Tryon, Philadelphia.
Turton W. 1819. A conchological dictionary of the British Islands. J. Booth, London.
Vinarski M. V. 2014a. The birth of malacology: when and how? Zoosyst. Evol. 90: 1–5.
Vinarski M. V. 2014b. Lymnaea likharevi Lazareva, 1967 is a junior synonym of Lymnaea saridalensis Mozley, 1934 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae). Ruthenica 24: 35–44.
Vinarski M. V., Aksenova O. V., Bespalaya Yu. V., Bolotov I. N., Schniebs K., Gofarov M. Yu., Kondakov A. V. 2016. Radix dolgini: The integrative taxonomic approach supports the species status of a Siberian endemic snail (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae). C. R. Biol. 339: 24–36.
Vinarski M. V., Andreeva S. I. 2007. On the species question in freshwater molluscs: a historical prospect and recent state. In: Kafanov A. I., Kiyashko P. V., Sirenko B. I. (eds). Theoretical and practical problems of studying of invertebrate associations: In memory Ya.I. Starobogatov. KMK Scientific Press, Moscow, pp. 130–147.
Vinarski M. V., Bolotov I. N., Schniebs K., Nekhaev I. O., Hundsdorfer A. K. 2017. Endemics or strangers? The integrative re-appraisal of taxonomy and phylogeny of the Greenland Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). C. R. Biolog. 340: 541–557.
Vinarski M. V., Kantor Yu. I. 2016. Analytical catalogue of fresh and brackish water molluscs of Russia and adjacent countries. A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Moscow.
Vinarski M. V., Kramarenko S. S. 2015. How does the discrepancies among taxonomists affect macroecological patterns? A case study of freshwater snails of Western Siberia. Biodiv. Conserv. 24: 2079–2091.
Voode M. 2017. Taxonomic status of Pisidium amnicum (Müller, 1774) and P. inflatum Megerle von Mühlfeld in Porro, 1838 (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae). Ruthenica 27: 39–49.
Weldon W. F. R. 1901. A first study of natural selection in Clausilia laminata (Montagu). Biometrika 1: 109–124.
Weldon W. F. R. 1904. Note on a race of Clausilia itala (von Martens). Biometrika 3: 299–307.
Westerlund C. A. 1892. Fundamenta Malacologica: Regeln der Nomenklatur; Anleitung zum Sammeln; Ueber die Zubereitung für die Sammlung; Anatomische Präparate; Die Zucht der Binnenmollusken; Vom Artbegriffe; Programm der Artbeschreibung; Terminologie. H. Ohlsson, Lund.
Wiens J. J. 2007. Species delimitation: new approaches for discovering diversity. Syst. Biol. 56: 875–878.
Wilkins J. 2009a. Species: a history of the idea. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Wilkins J. 2009b. Defining species: a sourcebook from antiquity to today. Peter Lang, New York.
Winnepennickx B., Backeljau T., De Wachter R. 1994. Small ribosomal subunit RNA and the phylogeny of Mollusca. Nautilus Suppl. 2: 98–110.
Zachos F. E. 2016. Species concepts in biology: historical development, theoretical foundations and practical relevance. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland.
Zakhvatkin A. A. 1928. Variation of Limnaea stagnalis L. in the Solovetskiye lakes. Mat. Solovetsk. Obschch. Kraevedenia 7: 7–17.
Zapata F., Jiménez I. 2012. Species delimitation: inferring gaps in morphology across geography. Syst. Biol. 61: 179–194.
Zavadsky K. M. 1968. Species and speciation. Nauka Publishers, Leningrad.
Zhadin V. I. 1923. Variation of Limnaea stagnalis L. from waterbodies of the Murom Town neighbourhood. Russ. Gidrobiol. Zh. 2: 97–106.
Zhadin V. I. 1928. On the variation in freshwater snails Limnaea stagnalis L. var. goktschana Mouss. Russ. Gidrobiol. Zh. 7: 146–150.
Freshwater Mollusca of the Circumpolar Arctic: a review on their taxonomy, diversity and biogeography
Maxim Vinarski, Ivan Bolotov, Olga Aksenova, Eugeniy Babushkin, Yulia Bespalaya, Alexander Makhrov, Ivan Nekhaev, Ilya Vikhrev
One Beringian genus less: A re‐assesment of Pacifimyxas Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1985 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) questions the current estimates of Beringian biodiversity
Maxim Vinarski, Olga Aksenova, Yulia Bespalaya, Alexander Kondakov, Alena Tomilova, Irina Khrebtova, Gofarov Yu., Ivan Bolotov
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research
Mollusc species from the Pontocaspian region – an expert opinion list
Frank Wesselingh, Thomas Neubauer, Vitaliy Anistratenko, Maxim V. Vinarski, Tamara Yanina, Poorten ter, Pavel Kijashko, Christian Albrecht, Olga Anistratenko, Anouk D’Hont, Pavel Frolov, Alberto Gándara, Arjan Gittenberger, Aleksandre Gogaladze, Mikhail Karpinsky, Matteo Lattuada, Luis Popa, Arthur Sands, Velde van de, Justine Vandendorpe, Thomas Wilke
The conservation status of the world’s freshwater molluscs
Monika Böhm, Nadia Dewhurst-Richman, Mary Seddon, Sophie Ledger, Christian Albrecht, David Allen, Arthur Bogan, Jay Cordeiro, Kevin Cummings, Annabelle Cuttelod, Gustavo Darrigran, Will Darwall, Zoltán Fehér, Claudine Gibson, Daniel Graf, Frank Köhler, Manuel Lopes-Lima, Guido Pastorino, Kathryn Perez, Kevin Smith, Damme van, Maxim Vinarski, Proschwitz von, Rintelen von, David Aldridge, Neelavar Aravind, Prem Budha, Cristhian Clavijo, Tu Van, Olivier Gargominy, Mohamed Ghamizi, Martin Haase, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Paul Johnson, Ümit Kebapçı, Jasna Lajtner, Charles Lange, Dwayne Lepitzki, Alberto Martínez-Ortí, Evelyn Moorkens, Eike Neubert, Caroline Pollock, Vincent Prié, Canella Radea, Rina Ramirez, Marian Ramos, Sonia Santos, Rajko Slapnik, Mikhail Son, Anna-Sofie Stensgaard, Ben Collen
Major shortfalls impairing knowledge and conservation of freshwater molluscs
Manuel Lopes-Lima, Nicoletta Riccardi, Maria Urbanska, Frank Köhler, Maxim Vinarski, Arthur Bogan, Ronaldo Sousa
Assessing Species Boundaries in the Freshwater Snail Family Physidae Using Coalescent-Based Delimitation Methods
Espirito do, Mariana Rossi, Ovando Constanza, Sthefane D'ávila
Not a Silent Invasion: The Reaction of European Naturalists to the Spread of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the 19th—Early 20th Century
Maxim Vinarski
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top