Cepaea nemoralis (L.) on Gotland, Sweden: spread and variation
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Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield
Department of Zoology, the Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
Göteborg Natural History Museum
Robert A. D. Cameron   

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, S10, 2TN Sheffield, United Kingdom
Department of Zoology, the Natural History Museum, SW7, 5BD London, United Kingdom
Submission date: 2019-08-30
Final revision date: 2019-10-20
Acceptance date: 2019-10-24
Publication date: 2019-11-15
Folia Malacol. 2019;27(4):307–313
Cepaea nemoralis is an introduced species on Gotland. The first records, from the capital city of Visby, date from the 1860's. Known initially from only three localities, it remained uncommon and restricted through the first half of the 20th century. Sampling from 1992 onwards, however, revealed that the species had spread into many sites in and near the city and also to Ardre on the opposite side of the island. Populations from both the 19th century and from the last 27 years were polymorphic for both colour and banding patterns. There is no evidence of general and consistent change in morph frequencies over time. While the frequencies of various banding patterns vary in a manner attributable to genetic drift and founder effect, variation in the frequencies of colour morphs is more restricted, suggesting that selection may also be involved. The data here provide a baseline for monitoring future changes.
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Cepaea nemoralis (L.) On Öland, Sweden: recent invasion and unexpected variation
Robert Cameron, Proschwitz von
Folia Malacologica