During the years 2011–2015 we published four papers on the Orthalicoidea types in the Natural History Museum in London; hereafter abbreviated as NHM, registered material as NHMUK (Breure & Ablett 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015). During research in the NHM general collection some additional type material was found that was only partly registered and which we treat herein. We also take the opportunity to correct the index presented in our 2015 paper, in which page numbers were partly incorrect due to technical decisions taken during the publishing process at the editorial office. With this paper we end this project to document the Orthalicoidea types in the NHM.


For the methods used, see Breure & Ablett (2011); for Museum Cuming label styles see pages 7–8 and fig. 6 of that paper. Scanning electron microscope images were taken with a FEI Quanta 650 FEGSEM. All material is present as dry shells only. Specimen images are available to view and download via the Natural History Museum Data Portal (available at Other abbreviations: D – shell diameter; H – shell height, SMF – Senckenberg Natur-Museum, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; W – number of whorls (counted according to Gittenberger et al. 1984: fig. 4a).



This list follows the classification of Salvador et al. (2023) as far as appropriate. Ongoing DNA research may alter this classification. Within the family level, genera and species are listed in alphabetical order.

Family Bothriembryontidae Iredale, 1937

Genus Prestonella Connolly, 1929

bowkeri G. B. Sowerby III, 1890

Family Bulimulidae Tryon, 1867

Genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847

sandwicensis L. Pfeiffer, 1846

Genus Bulimulus Leach, 1814

eganus L. Pfeiffer, 1853

Genus Drymaeus Albers, 1850

abruptus Rolle, 1904

curianensis Reeve, 1849

Genus Mesembrinus Albers, 1850

nigroapicatus L. Pfeiffer, 1857

Genus ?Neopetraeus E. von Martens, 1885

caerulescens L. Pfeiffer, 1858

Family Orthalicidae E. von Martens in Albers et Martens, 1860

Genus Kara Strebel, 1910

indentatus da Costa S. I., 1901


Bulimulus (Drymaeus) abruptus Rolle, 1904

Figs 16

Figs 1–5

Drymaeus abruptus (Rolle, 1904). Different views of possible syntype NHMUK 1904.1.21.1. Scale bar 10 mm
Fig. 6

Drymaeus abruptus (Rolle, 1904). Label in unknown handwriting. Label locality “Huancabamba, Peru”

Bulimulus (Drymaeus) abruptus Rolle 1904: 35; Breure 1979: 105.

Type locality. “Huancabamba, Peru”.

Label. “Huancabamba, Peru”.

Dimensions. “Alt. 44, diam. max 24 (…) mm”. Figured specimen H 36.8 mm, D 18.1 mm, W 5.5.

Type material. NHMUK 1904.1.21.1, one possible syntype (ex Rolle).

Remarks. This is an additional syntype present in NHM, NHMUK 1947.2.10.1 see Breure & Ablett (2014: 7–8). The specimen here was received, according to the registration book, without specific name but was “Presd by Herr Rolle (Berlin)“.

Current systematic position. Bulimulidae, Drymaeus abruptus (Rolle, 1904)

Bulimus (Mesembrinus?) bowkeri G. B. Sowerby III,1890

Figs 712

Figs 7–11

Prestonella bowkeri (G. B. Sowerby III, 1890). Different views of paralectotype NHMUK 1889.11.4.14. Label locality “Huancabamba, Peru”. Scale bar 5 mm
Fig. 12

Prestonella bowkeri (G. B. Sowerby III, 1890). Label in unknown handwritings. Label locality “Cape Colony”

Bulimus (Mesembrinus?) bowkeri Sowerby 1890: 581, pl. 56 fig. 5.

Bulimus (Mesembrinus?) bowkeriBreure & Ablett 2012: 7, figs 6A–C, 6i.

Prestonella bowkeri (Sowerby) – Herbert 2007: 6, figs 2–7, 9–11, 19, 23 (lectotype designation).

Type locality. [South Africa] “Somerset (East), Cape Colony. Forest about 3,000 ft above sea level (Col. Bowker)”

Label. “Cape Colony”.

Dimensions. “Long. 20, maj. diam. 11 mill.”; figured specimen H 18.3 mm, D 9.6 mm, W 4.5.

Type material. NHMUK 1889.11.4.14-17, four paralectotypes (ex Bowker).

Remarks. This material is additional to the lectotype, NHMUK 1889.11.4.9 (see Breure & Ablett 2012: 7) and was presented by Colonel J. H. Bowker. It may be noted that in the new phylogenetic data (Salvador et al. 2023) the Prestonellinae appear to be paraphyletic.

Current systematic position. Bothriembryontidae, Prestonella bowkeri (G. B. Sowerby III, 1890)

Bulimus caerulescens L. Pfeiffer, 1858

Figs 1320

Figs 13–17

?Neopetraeus caerulescens (L. Pfeiffer, 1858). Different views of syntype NHMUK 20230554. Scale bar 5 mm
Figs 18–19

?Neopetraeus caerulescens (L. Pfeiffer, 1858). Scanning electron microscope images of the protoconch. Scale bars 0.5 mm
Fig. 20

?Neopetraeus caerulescens (L. Pfeiffer, 1858). Label in unknown handwriting, except taxon name which is in Pfeiffer’s hand. Label locality “Province of Patas, Andes of Peru”

Bulimus caerulescens Pfeiffer 1858: 257.

Type locality. “Province of Patas, Andes of Peru (Dr. Farris)”.

Label. “Province of Patas, Andes of Peru, Dr. Farris”. M. C. style I.

Dimensions. “Long. 31, diam. 12 1/2 mill.”; figured specimen H 28.9 mm, D 10.6 mm, W 7.5+.

Type material. NHMUK 20230554, two syntypes.

Remarks. The label is written in Pfeiffer’s hand, with the species name spelled coerulescens. This is the first time that this species is figured on the basis of type material. Breure (1978: 63–66, fig. 86, pl. 10 fig. 2) treated this species based on material in SMF. This taxon was mentioned in the list of species expected to be present in the NHM but not found (Breure & Ablett 2015: 57).

Inspection of the protoconch of these specimens revealed that only one has a small trace of sculpture, otherwise the protoconchs are worn or damaged (Figs 18–19). The remnant of the sculpture does not allow a final conclusion of the systematic position of this taxon. However, it is clear that this species does not belong to Bostryx (contra MolluscaBase 2023a). For this reason we tentatively leave it with Neopetraeus (Richardson 1995: 239).

Current systematic position. Bulimulidae, ?Neopetraeus caerulescens (L. Pfeiffer, 1858)

Bulimus curianensis Reeve, 1849

Figs 2126

Figs 21–25

Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844). Different views of syntype of Bulimus curianensis Reeve, 1849. Scale bar 5 mm
Fig. 26

Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844). Label of Bulimus curianensis Reeve, 1849. Label locality “Venezuela”

Bulimus curianensis Reeve 1849 [1848–1850]: pl. 58, species 390.

Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844) – Pilsbry 1898 [1897–1898]: pl. 39 figs 41–43.

Type locality. “Curiana, Venezuela (on the leaves of Palms); Dyson”.

Label. “Venezuela”. M. C. style I.

Dimensions. Not given; figured specimen herein H 28.8 mm, D 12.1 mm, W 6.4.

Type material. NHMUK 20230557, two possible syntypes.

Remarks. Pilsbry (1898 [1897–1898]) copied Reeve’s figures, thus this is the first time this taxon is figured with photographs of one of the type specimens. The material was formerly glued to a board with the species names clipped from the text of Reeve; there is no sign that this material was collected by Dyson, hence they are considered as possible syntypes. This taxon was mentioned in the list of species expected to be present in the NHM but not found (Breure & Ablett 2015: 58).

Current systematic position. Bulimulidae, Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844)

Bulimus eganus L. Pfeiffer, 1853

Figs 2732

Figs 27–31

Bulimulus eganus (L. Pfeiffer, 1853). Different views of syntype NHMUK 20230556. Label locality “Venezuela”. Scale bar 2 mm
Fig. 32

Bulimulus eganus (L. Pfeiffer, 1853). Label in unknown handwriting. Label locality “Brazil”

Bulimus eganus Pfeiffer 1853a: 437.

Bulimus eganus – Pfeiffer 1853b: 258; Pfeiffer 1853 [1853–1865]: 85, pl. 30 figs 11–12.

Bulimulus eganus (Pfeiffer, 1853) – Pilsbry 1897 [1897–1898]: 64, pl. 11 figs 6–7.

Type locality. “Ega Brasiliae (Mus. Cuming)”.

Label. “Brazil”. M. C. style I.

Dimensions. “Long. 13, diam. 6 1/2 mill.”; figured specimen herein H 9.6 mm, D 6.4 mm, W 4.4.

Type material. NHMUK 20230556, two possible syntypes.

Remarks. This taxon was mentioned in the list of species expected to be present in the NHM but not found (Breure & Ablett 2015: 58).

Current systematic position. Bulimulidae, Bulimulus eganus (L. Pfeiffer, 1853)

Strophocheilus (Dryptus) indentatusda Costa, 1901

Figs 3338

Figs 33–37

Kara indentata (da Costa, 1901). Different views of paralectotype NHMUK 1902.10.16.1. Scale bar 5 mm
Fig. 38

Kara indentata (da Costa, 1901). Label in da Costa’s handwriting. Label locality “Ecuador”

Strophocheilus (Dryptus) indentatus da Costa 1901: 239, pl. 24 fig. 8.

Strophocheilus (Dryptus) indentatusPilsbry 1902 [1901–1902]: 281, pl. 49 fig. 7; Breure & Ablett 2015: 34, figs 8iii–iv, L9i.

Thaumastus (Thaumastus) indentatus (da Costa) – Breure 1979: 44; Breure & Borrero 2008: 8.

Kara indentata (da Costa) – Breure et al. 2022: 124, figs 159A–B.

Type locality. “Ecuador”.

Label. “Ecuador”.

Dimensions. “Long. 44, diameter 23 mm”; figured specimen herein H 44.1 mm, D 23.3 mm, W 4.7.

Type material. NHMUK 1902.10.16.1, one paralectotype.

Remarks. The specimen was presented by S. I. da Costa, according to the register. Besides the lectotype (NHMUK 1907.11.21.115) there is one other paralectotype in the NHM collection (NHMUK 1907.11.21.116, see Breure & Ablett 2015: 34, figs 8iii–iv, L9i).

Current systematic position. Orthalicidae, Kara indentata (da Costa, 1901)

Bulimus nigroapicatus L. Pfeiffer, 1857

Figs 3944

Figs 39–43

Mesembrinus nigroapicatus (L. Pfeiffer, 1857). Different views of syntype NHMUK 20230536. Scale bar 3 mm
Fig. 44

Mesembrinus nigroapicatus (L. Pfeiffer, 1857). Label in unknown handwriting, except the taxon name, which is in Pfeiffer’s handwriting. Label locality “Rio Pampas, Bolivia”

Bulimus nigroapicatus Pfeiffer 1857: 333.

Type locality. “Rio Pampas, Bolivia (Mr. Castelneau)”

Label. “Reo Pampas, Peru Mr. Castelneau”. M. C. label style I.

Dimensions. “Long. 22, diam. 11 1/2 mill.”; figured specimen herein H 18.5 mm, D 10.1 mm, W 5.4.

Type material. NHMUK 20230536, two syntypes.

Remarks. This previously unfigured species was described from the Cuming collection but was collected during the expedition of Castelneau. Although Pfeiffer located the Rio Pampas in Bolivia, Pilsbry (1898 [1897–1898]: 284) placed the type locality in Peru. After studying the itinerary of Castelnau (Papavero 1971: 149–159), we consider it more plausible that this material was collected in Peru. The Rio Pampas is a tributary of the Rio Apurimac, it runs from north to south, and is 424 km long. It has its source in the Choclococha lagoon in the department of Huancavelica, crosses the department of Ayacucho through the provinces of Víctor Fajardo, Cangallo and Vilcashuamán, finally flowing into the Apurimac river. As Castelneau travelled through both departments, it is impossible to say where he may have collected this material. For the moment we consider this a valid species, but as the type material is immature and subadult, we encourage further research on the systematic position of this taxon.

Current systematic position. Bulimulidae, Mesembrinus nigroapicatus (L. Pfeiffer, 1857)

Bulimus sandwicensis L. Pfeiffer, 1846

Figs 4550

Figs 45–49

Bostryx sandwicensis (L. Pfeiffer, 1846). Different views of syntype NHMUK 20230553. Scale bar 2 mm
Fig. 50

Bostryx sandwicensis (L. Pfeiffer, 1846). Labels in unknown handwriting, except the taxon name which was written by Pfeiffer

Bulimus sandwicensis Pfeiffer 1846: 31.

Bulimus sandwicensisPfeiffer 1848: 114.

Type locality. “Sandwich Islands”.

Label. “From the Sandwich Islands. B. W. Tucker Esq.”. M. C. label style II.

Dimensions. “Long. 15, diam. 4 1/2 mill.”; figured specimen herein H 16.6 mm, D 5.0 mm, W 8.4.

Type material. NHMUK 20230553, three syntypes.

Remarks. The taxon name is written in Pfeiffer’s hand. See Breure (1978: 120) for an explanation of the systematic position. MolluscaBase (2023b) states that “sandwicensis” was an error for “sandwichensis”, to which it gives priority. However the code states that a taxonomic name may only be altered where the original author (or publishers) has noted that his name was in error (ICZN 1999: article 33.2.1).

Current systematic position. Bulimulidae, Bostryx sandwicensis (L. Pfeiffer, 1846)


One further orthalicoid taxon, Bulimus guentheri G. B. Sowerby III, 1892, was described from a single specimen with dimensions “Long. 41, diam. maj. 26 millim.; aperture 12 lata, 22 longa”, and Sowerby remarked “The only specimen I have seen belongs to the National Collection at South Kensington [= NHM]“. This taxon was mentioned in the list of species expected to be present in the NHM but not found (Breure & Ablett 2015: 58). We found one specimen in the collection which is identified as Plekocheilus (Aeropictus) guentheri (G. B. Sowerby III, 1892) (Figs 51–55). This specimen was registered as NHMUK 1883.10.24.9 and in the register is mentioned “purchased of Mr G. B. Sowerby III”. The label reads “New Granada”, and “Colombia”; the shell dimensions are H 30.0 mm, D 16.5 mm, W 4.35. Given especially the mismatch between these measurements and the dimensions published by Sowerby in 1892, we do not consider this specimen as the type. Unfortunately, we have not located another specimen of this species in the collection.

Figs 51–55

Plekocheilus guentheri (G. B. Sowerby III, 1892). Different views of non-type material NHMUK 1883.10.24.9. Scale bar in mm