Cepaea nemoralis (L.) in Göteborg, S.W. Sweden: variation in a recent urban invader

Robert A. D. Cameron, e-mail: r.cameron@sheffield.ac.uk

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, --, S10 2TN Sheffield , UK
Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, SW7 5BD London, UK

Rhona J. Cox

AstraZeneca, Pepparedsleden, 431 83 Mölndal, Sweden

Ted Von Proschwitz

Section of Invertebrate Zoology, Göteborg Natural History Museum, PO Box 7283, SE-40235 Göteborg, Sweden

Michal Horsák

Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic

Although present since the mid 19th century, the introduced snail species Cepaea nemoralis has spread extensively in Göteborg, mainly in the last two decades. Early samples show the predominance of yellow-shelled morphs, but in modern populations pink shells predominate. There is great variation in morph frequencies among modern populations with high values of FST, and with no relationships to habitat. The patterns shown resemble those seen in Sheffield (UK), a city also colonised over a similar time period, but differ from those seen in regions where the species has been established for much longer. The combination of early and recent records suggests not only that founder effects play a large part in determining morph frequencies, but that present populations derive from multiple colonisations from different sources.

Key words
Cepaea nemoralis;  polymorphism; invasion; Göteborg

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Folia Malacologica (2014) 22: 169-182
First published on-line: 2014-08-07 00:00:00
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