RESEARCH PAPER
Life cycle of Perforatella bidentata (Gmelin, 1791) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Helicidae)
 
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1
Department of Zoology & Ecology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
2
Institute of Natural Sciences, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Submission date: 2009-06-01
Acceptance date: 2009-09-15
Publication date: 2020-06-02
 
Folia Malacol. 2009;17(4):199–214
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Laboratory and field observations made it possible to ascertain the following life cycle parameters of Perforatella bidentata (Gmel.): mating includes four phases, the longest being courtship; sperm is transferred in spermatophores. Eggs are laid in winter (November-February) and summer (May–September), in batches of 2–20. They are calcified, slightly oval, ca. 1.5 × 1.8 mm. Incubation takes 8–34 days, hatching is asynchronous. Growth from hatching to maturity lasts from ca. 3 to 9 months. In the wild the youngest age class appears in July. The maximum life span is 3 years. The activity is the greatest in spring and autumn; in all seasons it is greater inthe night and early morning; juveniles are more active than adults. The individual mobility is up to 5 m/month.
 
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