A possible phoretic relationship between snails and amphibians
Krzysztof Kolenda 1  
,   Anna Najbar 1  
,   Natalia Kuśmierek 2  
,   Tomasz K. Maltz 3  
More details
Hide details
Department of Evolutionary Biology and Conservation of Vertebrates, Wrocław University
Department of Parasitology, Wroclaw University
Museum of Natural History, Wrocław University
Krzysztof Kolenda   

Department of Evolutionary Biology and Conservation of Vertebrates, Wrocław University, Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335 Wrocław, Poland
Submission date: 2017-09-29
Final revision date: 2017-10-12
Acceptance date: 2017-10-16
Publication date: 2017-11-20
Folia Malacol. 2017;25(4):281–285
We describe five observations of possible phoretic relationship between snails and amphibians in south-western Poland: two individuals of European tree frog Hyla arborea (Linnaeus, 1758) with juvenile snails attached to various parts of their bodies, common toad Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) with copse snail Arianta arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758), pair of common toads in amplexus with two individuals of Balea sp. or Laciniaria plicata (Draparnaud, 1801), and common toad with succineid species eggs and developing snail embryos attached to them. These are the first such observations ever.
Bajerlein D., Bloszyk J. 2004. Phoresy of Uropoda orbicularis (Acari: Mesostigmata) by beetles (Coleoptera) associated with cattle dung in Poland. Eur. J. Entomol. 101: 185–188.
Calisto M., Goulart M. D. C. 2000. Phoretic association between Nanocladius (Plecopteracoluthus) sp. (Chironomidae: Diptera) and Thraulodes sp. (Leptophlebiidae: Ephemeroptera). An. Soc. Entomol. Bras. 29: 605–608.
Darwin C. R. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. John Murray, London.
Eng M. S., Preisser E. L., Strong D. R. 2005. Phoresy of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus by a non-host organism, the isopod Porcellio scaber. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 88: 173–176.
Farish D. J., Axtell R. C. 1971. Phoresy redefined and examined in Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Acarina: Macrochelidae). Acarologia 13: 16–29.
Guerra T. J., Romero G. Q., Costa J. C., Lofego A. C., Benson W. W. 2010. Phoretic dispersal on bumblebees by bromeliad flower mites (Mesostigmata, Melicharidae). Insect. Soc. 59: 11–16.
Juszczyk W. 1987. Płazy i gady krajowe. PWN, Warszawa.
Kano Y. 2009. Hitchhiking behaviour in the obligatory upstream migration of amphidromous snails. Biol. Lett. 5: 465–468.
Khan R. N., Frick M. G. 1997. Erpobdella punctata (Hirudinea: Erpobdellidae) as phoronts on Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia: Ambystomidae). J. Nat. Hist. 3: 157–161.
Krantz G. W., Whitaker J. O. 1988. Mites of the genus Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae) associated with small mammals in North America. Acarologia 29: 225–259.
Kuźnik-Kowalska E., Pokryszko B. M., Proćków M., Oczkowska M. 2013. On the population dynamics, reproductive biology and growth of Succinea putris (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Succineaidae). Folia Malacol. 21: 215–224.
Kwet A. 1995. Erdkröten (Bufo bufo) als Transportwirte von Kugelmuscheln (Sphaerium corneum). Salamandra 31: 61–64.
Lopez L. C. S., Pena Rodriques P. J. F., Rios R. I. 1999. Frogs and snakes as phoretic dispersal agents of bromeliad ostracods (Limnocytheridae: Elpidium) and annelids (Naididae: Dero). Biotropica 31: 705–708.
Lopez L. C. S., Filizola B., Deiss I., Rios R. I. 2005. Phoretic behaviour of bromeliad annelids (Dero) and ostracods (Elpidium) using frogs and lizards as dispersal vectors. Hydrobiologia 549: 15–22.
Maia-Carneiro T., Dorigo T. A., Wachlevski M., Rocha C. F. D. 2012. Evidence of phoresy by leeches (Hirudinoidea) on Rhinella abei (Anura: Bufonidae) in the Atlantic Rainforest in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Acta Herpetol. 7: 163–169.
Piechocki A. 1999. The role of lymnaeids (Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae) in the dispersal of a New Zealand snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae). Folia Malacol. 7: 183–186.
Platt T. R., Sever D. M., Gonzalez V. L. 1993. First report of the predaceous leech Helobdella stagnalis (Rhynchobdellida: Glossiphoniidae) as a parasite of an amphibian, Ambystoma tigrinum (Amphibia: Caudata). Am. Midl. Nat. 129: 208–210.
Prat N., Añón-Suárez D., Rieradevall M. 2004. First record of Podonominae larvae living phoretically on the shells of the water snail Chilina dombeyana (Diptera: Chironomidae / Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae). Aquat. Insects 3–4: 147–152.
Purchon R. D. 1977. The biology of the Mollusca. Pergamon, London.
Sabagh L. T., Dias R. J. P., Branco C. W. C., Rocha C. F. D. 2011. News records of phoresy and hyperphoresy among treefrogs, ostracods, and ciliates in bromeliad of Atlantic forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 20: 1837–1841.
Santos J. C., Tizo-Pedroso E., Fernandes G. W. 2005. A case of phoresy of Semeiochernes armiger Balzan, 1892 (Pseudoscorpiones: Chernetidae) on the giant tropical fly Pantophthalmus tabaninus Thunberg, 1819 (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae) in an Amazonian rain forest, Pará. Lundiana 6: 11–12.
Silva H. M., Hernandes F. A., Pichorim M. 2015. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil. Braz. J. Biol. 75: 726–735.
Simonová J., Simon O. P., Kapic S., Nehasil L., Horsák M. 2016. Medium-sized forest snails survive passage through birds’ digestive tract and adhere strongly to birds’ legs: more evidence for passive dispersal mechanisms. J. Mollus. Stud. 82: 422–426.
Tiberti R., Gentilli A. 2010. First report of freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis (Rhyncobdellida: Glossiphoniidae) as a parasite of an anuran amphibian. Acta Herpetol. 5: 255–258.
Vaz-de-Mello F. 2007. Revision and phylogeny of the dung beetle genus Zonocopris Arrow 1932 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), a phoretic of land snails. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 43: 231–239.
Vinikour W. S. 1982. Phoresis between the snail Oxytrema (=Elima) carinifera and aquatic insects, especially Rheotanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae). Entomol. News 93: 143–151.
Welter-Schultes F. 2012. European non-marine molluscs, a guide for species identification. Planet Poster Editions, Göttingen.
Wood L. R., Griffiths R. A., Groh K., Engel E., Schley L. 2008. Interactions between freshwater mussels and newts: a novel form of parasitism? Amphib-reptil. 29: 457–462.
Zimić A. 2015. Commensalism, predation or parasitism: first report of the leech Helobdella stagnalis Linnaeus, 1758 on yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata (Linnaeus, 1758). Ecol. Montenegr. 2: 62–63.
Freshwater Mollusca of the Circumpolar Arctic: a review on their taxonomy, diversity and biogeography
Maxim Vinarski, Ivan Bolotov, Olga Aksenova, Eugeniy Babushkin, Yulia Bespalaya, Alexander Makhrov, Ivan Nekhaev, Ilya Vikhrev
Phoresy in animals: review and synthesis of a common but understudied mode of dispersal
Andrew Bartlow, Salvatore Agosta
Biological Reviews
First freshwater gastropod preserved in amber suggests long-distance dispersal during the Cretaceous Period
Tingting Yu, Thomas Neubauer, Adrienne Jochum
Geological Magazine